Pages

1.27.2009

Law on the People's Armed Police to be passed soon


Yesterday Wang Jianping, the People's Armed Police chief of staff, released an interview to Caijing stating that a Law on the People's Armed Police 人民武装警察 will be passed soon.

The People's Armed Police is a component of China's armed forces composed by the internal security force, the border public security, firefighting and security guard forces. It was established in 1983. Apart from a 1982 document issued by the CCP Central Committee, [中发[1982]30号文件] its existence lacked an adequate legal basis until 1995 [see art. 51 中华人民共和国人民警察法].

In March 2008, 33 PAP delegates to the NPC submitted a legislative proposal. The legislative draft has been already reviewed by the State Council and the Central Military Commission, and should undergo the first reading by the NPC.

Related

1.24.2009

中国共产党党员领导干部廉洁从政若干准则(试行)》实施办法

关于印发《〈中国共产党党员领导干部廉洁从政若干准则(试行)〉实施办法》的通知

中纪发(1997)5号


各省、自治区、直辖市纪委,中央和国家机关各部委纪检组(纪委), 中央纪委各派驻纪检组,中直机关和中央国家机关纪工委,军委纪委:

现将《〈中国共产党党员领导干部廉洁从政若干准则(试行)〉实施办法》印发给你们,请遵照执行。


中共中央纪委
1997年9月3日




《中国共产党党员领导干部廉洁从政若干准则(试行)》实施办法


第一章 总 则

第一条 为贯彻实施《中国共产党党员领导干部廉洁从政若干准则(试行)》(以下简称《廉政准则》),正确处理违反《廉政淮则》的行为,制定本实施办法。

第二条 党员领导干部对违反《廉政准则》的行为,应当主动检查纠正。能够主动检查纠正,情节较轻的,可以不予处分或者免予处分,但应给予批评教育;情节较重的,从轻或者减轻处分。不主动检查纠正的,依照本实施办法处理。

第三条 《廉政准则》的适用范围,包括已到退(离)休年龄尚未办理退(离)休手续,以及已办退(离)休手续但返聘后又担任相应领导职务的党员领导干部。

国有小型企业的党员领导干部,参照执行《廉政准则》。


第二章 廉洁从政行为规范


第一节 禁止利用职权和职务上 的影响谋取不正当利益

第四条 《廉政准则》第一条第一项所称“管理、服务对象”,是指行政机关的工作对象、司法机关和执纪机关查处的案件当事人、组织(人事)部门的工作对象以及其他领导干部所在部门和单位法定职责范围内管理和服务的对象。

利用职权和职务上的影响,索取管理、服务对象钱物的,依照《中国共产党纪律处分条例(试行)》(以下简称《纪律处分条例》)第六十一条的规定处理。

对变相索要物品或者索要物品后象征性地付少量钱款的行为,依照《纪律处分条例》第五十九条的规定处理。

第五条 《廉政准则》第一条第二项所称“接受可能影响公正执行公务的礼物馈赠和宴请”,是指接受管理和服务对象及其亲属的礼物馈赠和宴请。

接受可能影响公正执行公务的礼物馈赠的,所接受的礼物应当一律登记、交公。不登记、交公的,依照《纪律处分条例》第六十三条的规定处理。

接受可能影响公正执行公务的宴请的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十五条的规定处理。用公款宴请的,宴请费用由宴请者和受请者个人负担。

第六条《廉政准则》第一条第三项所称“公务活动”,包括国内公务活动和对外公务活动。

《廉政准则》第一条第三项所称“在公务活动中接受礼金和各种有价证券”,包括接受用公款以各种名义赠送的礼金和各种有价证券,以及接受个人赠送的可能影响公正执行公务的礼金和各种有价证券。

在公务活动中接受礼金和各种有价证券的,所接受的礼金、有价证券,一律登记、交公。不登记、交公的,依照《纪律处分条例》第六十三条的规定处理。

第七条 《廉政准则》第一条第四项所称“其他支付凭证”包括支票、本票、汇票及各种有价识别磁卡等支付凭证。

利用职权和职务上的影响,接受下属单位和其他企业、事业单位或者个人赠送的信用卡及其他支付凭证的,依照《纪律处分条例》第六十三条的规定处理。所接受的信用卡及其他支付凭证应当退还或者上缴,已经支付的费用由个人负担。

第八条 以虚报、谎报等手段获取荣誉的,依照《纪律处分条例》第一百二十七条的规定处理;以虚报、谎报等手段获取职称的,依照《纪律处分条例》第五十一条的规定处理。所获取的荣誉、职称及其他利益予以取消或者纠正。

第九条 《廉政准则》第一条第六项所称“喜庆事宜”,包括本人及家庭成员职务升迁、过生日、迁新居等喜庆事宜。

用公款公物操办婚丧喜庆事宜和借机敛财的,依照《纪律处分条例》第一百二十八条的规定处理。所用公款公物应当退赔。

第二节禁止私自从事营利活动

第十条 《廉政准则》第二条第一项所称“个人经商办企业”是指个人独资经商办企业,与他人合资、合股、合作、合伙经商办企业,私自以承包、租赁、受聘等方式经商办企业。个人经商办企业的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十八条的规定处理。

第十一条 《廉政准则》第二条第二项所称“经济实体”,包括各种企业、公司、营利性的事业单位和民办学校、医院、文艺团体等民办非企业单位。

《廉政准则》第二条第二项所称“违反规定”,是指违反1993年10月5日《中共中央 国务院关于反腐败斗争近期抓好几项工作的决定》等中共中央、国务院及中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅制定的有关规定。

违反规定在经济实体中兼职(包括名誉职务)或者兼职取酬的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十九条的规定处理,并应当辞去一方职务;所领取的报酬(包括各种经济利益)应当上缴。

党和国家机关、人民团体中的县(处)级以上党员领导干部从事有偿中介活动的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十八条的规定处理。国有企业、事业单位的党员领导干部个人从事有偿中介活动的,比照《纪律处分条例》第八十八条的规定处理。所收取的钱物应当上缴。

第十二条 《廉政准则》第二条第三项所称“违反规定”,是指违反1993年10月5日《中共中央国务院关于反腐败斗争近期抓好几项工作的决定》;1993年4月22 日国务院发布的《股票发行与交易管理暂行条例》,1993年4月3日《国务院办公厅转发国家体改委等部门<关于立即制止发行内部职工股不规范做法意见>的 紧急通知》以及国务院有关部门,各省、自治区、直辖市制定的有关规定。

党和国家机关、人民团体以及具有行政管理职能的企业、具有行政管理职能的事业单位的县(处)级以上党员领导干部买卖股票的,依照《纪律处分条例》第九十一条的规定处理。所持有的股票,依照《股票发行与交易管理暂行条例》的规定处理。

党和国家机关、人民团体、事业单位以及具有行政管理职能的企业的县(处)级以上党员领导干部购买企业内部职工股的,或者《廉政准则》第十二条所列 企业党员领导干部购买所在企业以外的其他企业内部职工股的,依照《纪律处分条例》第九十一条的规定处理。所持有的企业内部职工股,依照《国务院办公厅转发 国家体改委等部门<关于立即制止发行内部职工股不规范做法意见>的紧急通知》的规定处理。

第十三条 个人在国(境)外注册公司或者投资入股的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十八条的规定处理,并责令纠正。

擅自以个人名义用公款在国(境)外注册公司或者投资入股,构成贪污的,依照《纪律处分条例》第五十七条的规定处理;构成挪用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十条的规定处理。

第三节 禁止假公济私、化公为私

第十四条 利用自己主管、管理、经手公共财物的权力及其便利条件,用公款报销或者用本单位的信用卡支付应由个人负担的费用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第五十七条的规定处理。

利用职务上的便利,为他人谋取利益,由他人用公款报销应由个人负担的费用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第六十一条第一款的规定处理;

除本条第一款、第二款所列行为之外,利用职务或者工作上的便利,用公款报销或者用本单位的信用卡支付应由个人负担的费用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第五十九条的规定处理。

第十五条 借用公款逾期不还,情节严重的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十二条第一款的规定处理,并追还所欠公款。

借用公款供个人进行营利活动或者非法活动的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十二条第二款、第三款的规定处理。所借用的公款应当立即归还并按银行同期贷款利率付息,所获利润和其他非法所得,责令上缴。

第十六条 公费出国(境)旅游或者变相出国(境)旅游的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十六条的规定处理。旅游费用由个人负担。

第十七条 《廉政准则》第三条第四项所称“高消费娱乐活动”,包括营业性的歌厅、舞厅、夜总会和高尔夫球等娱乐活动。

用公款参与高消费娱乐活动和获取各种形式的俱乐部会员资格的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十六条的规定处理。所用公款由个人负担。国有企业党员领导干部在业务招待中用公款参与高消费娱乐活动,未违反业务招待费使用规定的除外。

第十八条 本人或者指使他人以私人名义存储公款的,依照《纪律处分条例》第一百条的规定处理。

第四节 禁止借选拔任用干部之机谋取私利

第十九条 采取不正当手段为本人谋取职位的,依照《中共中央办公厅关于对违反<党政领导干部选拔任用工作暂行条例>行为的处理规定》(以下简称《处理规定》)第十五条的规定处理。

第二十条 泄露酝酿讨论干部任免情况的,依照《处理规定》第八条的规定处理。

第二十一条 在工作调动、机构变动时,突击提拔干部,或者在调离后干预原地区、原单位的干部选拔任用的,依照《处理规定》第九条的规定处理。

第二十二条 在干部考察工作中隐瞒或者歪曲事实真相的,依照《处理规定》第十一条的规定处理。

第二十三条 在干部选拔任用工作中打击报复或者营私舞弊的,依照《处理规定》第十二条的规定处理。

第二十四条 在干部选拔任用工作中封官许愿的,依照《处理规定》第十三条的规定处理。

第二十五条 违反《廉政准则》第四条和第五条第一项的规定,所作出的干部任免决定依照《处理规定》第二条的规定处理。

第五节 禁止利用职权和职务上的影响为亲友及身边工作人员谋取利益

第二十六条 要求或者指使提拔配偶、子女、其他亲友及身边工作人员的,依照《处理规定》第七条的规定处理。

第二十七条 利用自己主管、管理、经手公共财物的权力及其便利条件,用公款支付配偶、子女及其他亲友学习、培训费用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第五十七条的规定处理。

利用职务上的便利,为他人谋取利益,由他人用公款支付配偶、子女及其他亲友学习、培训费用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第六十一条第一款的规定处理。

除本条第一款、第二款所列行为之外,利用职务或者工作上的便利,用公款支付配偶、子女及其他亲友学习、培训费用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第五十九条的规定处理。

第二十八条 利用职权和职务上的影响,为配偶、子女及其他亲友出国(境)旅游、探亲、留学向国(境)外个人或者组织索取资助的,依照《纪律处分条例》第六十一条第一款、第二款的规定处理。

第二十九条 妨碍涉及配偶、子女、其他亲友及身边工作人员案件调查处理的,依照《纪律处分条例》第一百四十六条的规定处理。

第三十条 为配偶、子女及其他亲友经商、办企业提供便利和优惠条件的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十八条的规定处理。对其配偶、子女及其他亲友获取的经济利益依法予以处理。

第三十一条 《廉政准则》第五条第二款所称“个人经商办企业”,除包括本实施办法第十条第一款规定的外,还包括在国(境)外注册公司回国(境)内经商。

《廉政准则》第五条第二款所称“在外商独资企业任职”,是指受聘于外商独资企业或者外商独资企业驻国(境)内的办事机构。

省(部)级以上领导干部的配偶、子女及其配偶,在该领导干部管辖的地区及管辖的业务范围个人经商办企业和在外商独资企业任职的,领导干部应要求其 配偶、子女及其配偶限期纠正。拒不纠正的,领导干部应当辞去现任职务或者由组织上调整其职务,并比照《纪律处分条例》第八十八条的规定处理。

第六节 禁止讲排场、比阔气、挥霍公款、铺张浪费

第三十二条 在国内公务活动中接受超过规定标准接待的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十六条的规定处理。

第三十三条 《廉政准则》第六条第二项所称“违反规定”,是指违反1989年12月19日《国务院机关事务管理局关于中央国家机关部级干部宿舍修缮标准的规定》以及国 务院及其有关部门,各省、自治区、直辖市制定的有关规定。违反规定用公款装修、购买住房的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十三条的规定处理。超过规定标准的装 修费用,由个人负担。所购买的住房依照国家关于住房制度改革的规定处理。

第三十四条 擅自用公款包租或者占用客房供个人使用的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十六条的规定处理。所用公款由个人负担,所包租、占用的客房立即退出。

第三十五条 《廉政准则》第六条第四项所称“违反规定”,是指违反1994年9月5日《中共中央办公厅国务院办公厅关于党政机关汽车配备和使用管理的规定》以及中共中 央、国务院,中共中央办公厅、国务院办公厅,国务院有关部门,各省、自治区、直辖市制定的有关规定。

违反规定配备、使用小汽车的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十四条和《中共中央纪律检查委员会关于党政机关县(处)级以上党员领导干部违反廉洁自律规定购买、更换小汽车行为的党纪处理办法》的规定处理。

第三十六条 擅自用公款配备、使用通信工具的,依照《纪律处分条例》第八十六条的规定处理。通信工具应当上缴。


第三章 附则

第三十七条 本实施办法由中共中央纪律检查委员会负责解释。

第三十八条 本实施办法自发布之日起施行。

《廉政准则》发布后,本实施办法发布前,违反《廉政准则》行为尚未处理的,也适用本实施办法。

列于本实施办法附件一的规定,已纳入《廉政准则》和本实施办法,自本实施办法施行之日起,予以废止。

列于本实施办法附件二的规定,予以保留,继续有效。


附件二

下列规定予以保留,继续有效:

1、《中共中央纪律检查委员会关于党政机关县(处)级以上党员领导干部违反廉洁自律规定购买、更换小汽车行为的党纪处理办法》(中纪发[1996]15号)

2、《中共中央纪律检查委员会关于国有企业领导干部廉洁自律“四条规定”的实施和处理意见》(中纪发[1995]7号),但其中与《廉政准则》及其《实施办法》、《纪律处分条例》有抵触的,应以《廉政准则》及其《实施办法》、《纪律处分条例》的规定为准。

1.22.2009

UK and China: A framework for engagement

This is the first document of the UK Government to articulate an approach for the UK's relationship with China. It has been launched today, and can be downloaded here. References to administrative detention, torture and the death penalty are on p. 18.

1.21.2009

Picture of the day

"Public arrest" (公捕大会) of Li Haifeng and members of his organized criminal group

This is a very recent picture. Notice how criminal suspects are hooded.

1.19.2009

Local legislation on "human flesh searches" issued

"Human flesh searches" (人肉搜索) is an idiom that describes tracking down and publishing on the internet personal information of those whom - according to internet mobs - have engaged in immoral behaviour. More detailed information about this phenomenon is available here, here, here and here.

Various provisions in Chinese law protect privacy, but legislation on the protection of personal information is still in the making. The drafting of a law on the protection of personal information 个人信息保护法 was proposed in 2003. (The full text of the proposal is available here). NPC delegates suggested that this practice be regulated under the criminal law, but their proposal has met with controversy.

Addition of a paragraph on privacy protection to art. 253 of the Criminal Law (opening, concealing or destroying correspondence) has been suggested. But provisions of art. 253 would apply only to personal information obtained by employees in carrying out their duties, or in the course of providing services.

Unsurprisingly, legislation about "human flesh searches" has been passed by local level governments. Yesterday the Xuzhou People's Congress has issued the Regulations on Protection of Computer Information Systems Security (徐州市计算机信息系统安全保护条例). According to the Regulations, those who disseminate personal information through the internet or other means of communication will be punished with a 5.000 yuan fine. If circumstances are serious (情节严重), they will not be allowed to use the internet for a maximum period of six months (how are they going to do this, I wonder). Internet cafès will have their business licence suspended or revoked. The Regulations will entry into force on June 1, 2009.





Draft CL amendments - Article 312 (2) receipt of stolen property

Addition of a second paragraph to article 312 was proposed by the People's Bank of China, to criminalize receipt of stolen property by work units. Inclusion of such a provision in the Criminal Law should aid implementation of provisions on money laundering, contained in art. 191 of the CL and in the PRC Anti-Money Laundering Law.

Article 312

Whoever knowingly conceals, transfers, purchases or helps to sell illegally acquired goods shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance and shall also, or shall only, be fined. If the circumstance are serious, he shall be punished with not less than three years and not more than seven years fixed term imprisonment and a concurrent fine.

Proposed amendment: Where a unit commits the crime mentioned in the second paragraph, it shall be fined, and the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible for the offence shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the above paragraph

单位犯前款罪的,对单位判处罚金,并对其直接负责的主管人员和其他直接责任人员,依照前款的规定处罚。
Translation courtesy CECC

It is worth noting that no criteria exist to determine when an offence under art. 312 takes place in "serious circumstances". The only relevant provisions I am aware of are contained in art. 1 par. 2 of the 最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于办理与盗窃、抢劫、诈骗、抢夺机动车相关刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释, and refer to motor vehicles.

Related:
  • List of amendments to the CL of the PRC
  • 中华人民共和国反洗钱法 (English)
  • 最高人民法院、最高人民检察院关于办理与盗窃、抢劫、诈骗、抢夺机动车相关刑事案件具体应用法律若干问题的解释
  • Art 191. Whoever, while clearly knowing that the funds are proceeds illegally obtained from drug-related crimes or from crimes committed by mafias or smugglers and gains derived therefrom, commits any of the following acts in order to cover up or conceal the source or nature of the funds shall, in addition to being confiscated of the said proceeds and gains, be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or criminal detention and shall also, or shall only, be fined not less than five percent but not more than 20 percent of the amount of money laundried; if the circumstances are serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than five but not more than 10 years and shall also be fined not less than five percent but not more than 20 percent of the amount of money laundried:

    (1) providing fund accounts;

    (2) helping exchange property into cash or any financial negotiable instruments;

    (3) helping transfer capital through transferring accounts or any other form of settlement;

    (4) helping remit funds to any other country; or

    (5) covering up or concealing by any other means the nature or source of the illegally obtained proceeds and the gains derived therfrom.

    Where a unit commits any of the crimes mentioned in the preceding paragraph, it shall be fined, and the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible for the crime shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or criminal detention.









1.17.2009

Draft CL amendments - Article 375 (2) illegal production or sale of armed forces uniforms or special symbols

Most of my readers are familiar with white-and-red military vehicle plates. As you know, drivers of cars that display a military plate are exempted from parking fees and road tolls. Most importantly, the cops will never dare to stop them. Those who are members of the PLA or the PAP, get a plate like the one below.

This is an original plate of the People's Armed Police. "2007 style", used since May 1 2007


Those who want a military plate, but are not in the army and have no friends there may end up buying a plate like this one:

This is an original plate of the People's Armed Police, but of the "99-style", hence not used anymore since 2004

even worse, they may get one like this:

This is a fake plate. Compare this plate with the one above, look at the length and breadth of the numbers.


or this one

I wonder if anyone really spent their money on such a bad fake, and how much

According to the Ministry of Commerce, trade in bogus plates has got an annual volume of 1.000.000.000 yuan. Between May and September last year, the police seized a total of more 17.000 fake licence plates. Therefore, the Central Military Commission proposed to amend relevant provisions of the Criminal Law, to cover also the theft, forgery, trade, illegal supply or use of number plates of vehicles.

Here's the proposed amendment to art. 375:

Article 375

Whoever forges, alters, buys, sells or steals or forcibly seizes the official documents, certificates or seals of the armed forces shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention, public surveillance or deprivation of political rights; if the circumstances are serious, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years but not more than 10 years.

Whoever illegally manufactures, buys or sells uniforms or special symbols such as number plates of vehicles of the armed forces, if the circumstances are serious, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance and shall also, or shall only, be fined.

Proposed amendment: Whoever illegally manufactures, buys or sells uniforms, forges, steals, buys or sells or [otherwise] illegally supplies or uses number plates of vehicles of the armed forces or other special symbols shall if circumstances are serious be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention or public surveillance and shall also, or shall only, be fined.

非法生产、买卖武装部队制式服装,伪造、盗窃、买卖或者非法提供、使用武装部队车辆号牌等专用标志,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑、拘役或者管制,并处或者单处罚金

Where a unit commits the crime mentioned in the second paragraph, it shall be fined, and the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible for the offence shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the said paragraph.

Translation courtesy CECC
Related:












1.15.2009

Anti-torture measures experimented in Jilin province

In March 2008, Liaoyuan municipality (Jilin province) began experimenting a measure aimed at reducing torture, known as the "counsel system" (巡视员制度). 20 "counselors" (巡视员) - chosen among legal scholars and physicians - carried out rounds of inspection in Liaoyuan municipality's detention facilities.. This far, the team has interviewed a total of 32 detainees, and carried out 21 inspections in detention centres. Experiments will soon take place in Henan and Jiangxi provinces too. It is not known how many specific instances of torture were documented by the Liaoyuan team.

Counselors are chosen (
选拔) by the public security bureau and the procuracy among delegates to local people's congresses, political-consultative conferences and procuracies. Their nomination is approved by people's congresses, political-consultative conferences and the procuracy. A "counsel office" (巡视员办公室) has been established within the local procuracy. While sending counselors on inspection tours of detention facilities may be a cheap and feasible option, they are clearly not independent. Also, one may wonder whether China's adoption of the Instabul protocol wouldn't make their job easier.

Related

1.07.2009

Draft CL amendments - Article 337 - violation of laws on animal or plant quarantine

The wording of article 337 has been slightly changed, to cover violation of legislation on epidemics prevention, besides legislation on quarantine. This amendment was proposed by the Supreme People's Procuratorate, that noticed how in practice violation of both sets of laws takes place.


Article 337

Whoever, in violation of the provisions of the Law on the Entry and Exit Animal and Plant Quarantine, evades animal and plant quarantine and thereby causes a serious animal or plant epidemic shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years or criminal detention and shall also, or shall only, be fined.

[Draft amendment: whoever, in violation of relevant State legislation on epidemics prevention, quarantine causes a serious animal or plant epidemic or the peril thereof shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years or criminal detention and shall also, or shall only, be fined

违反有关动植物防疫、检疫的国家规定,引起重大动植物疫情或者有引起重大动植物疫情严重危险的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金]


Where a unit commits the crime mentioned in the preceding paragraph, it shall be fined, and the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are directly responsible for the offence shall be punished in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph
Translation courtesy CECC
Related:












1.06.2009

Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of China's human rights record - documents available

The Universal Periodic Review (UPR) is a process whereby the human rights record of all member states of the United Nations is reviewed once every four years. China will be reviewed before the UN Human Rights Council from February 2 - 13, together with other 15 member states.

Joshua Rosenzweig of the Duihua Foundation (blog) has just alerted Chinalaw members to the release of the following key documents:
A link to the party-state report to the UNHRC is available on Don Clarke's blog.

1.04.2009

Draft CL amendments - Article 262 abducting minors

A new paragraph has been added to article 262, to include provisions on the crime of organizing minors to carry out offences against public order.

Penalties are of less than three years fixed-term imprisonment, or between three and seven years fixed-term imprisonment when circumstances are serious. This amendment has been proposed by the Ministry of Public Security. During its second reading one of the delegates (Xia Ji'en) noticed how in several cases minors are rather incited 教唆 to commit such crimes, and suggested that the words "Those who organize minors" become "those who incite or organize minors".

Article 262
Whoever abducts a minor under the age of 14, thereby separating the child from his family or guardian, shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than five years or criminal detention.

[Amendment: Those who organize minors to carry out theft, fraud, robbery, extortion and other activities against public order shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years or criminal detention, and a concurrent fine. If circumstances are serious, they shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three and not more than seven years, and a concurrent fine]


组织未成年人进行盗窃、诈骗、抢夺、敲诈勒索等违反治安管理活动的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处罚金;情节严重的,处三年以上七年以下有期徒刑,并处罚金。
Translation courtesy CECC

  
-->


-->

1.03.2009

SPC sentencing guidelines to be issued in 2009

According to the Legal Daily, the Supreme People's Court should soon pass the "People's courts sentencing guidelines" (全国法院量刑指导意见).

This far, the lack of a uniform set of standards to guide the courts in sentencing has resulted in several claims that people's court sentences were too severe. Such claims have been made by 80% of those who filed petitions against judgements from criminal courts.

In the US legal system and in the legal systems of EU member states sentencing outcomes are affected by the race of the defendant.

It would be very interesting to know which variables affect sentencing outcomes in China (the political sensitivity of some cases apart). There are some clues that the problem may be big. In Jiangyan (Jiangsu province) disparity in sentencing is said to affect 80% of criminal cases. The adoption of sentencing guidelines was also among the goals of the Second Five Year Reform Programme for the People’s Courts (2004-2008)人民法院第二个五年改革纲要(2004-2008) [read Don Clarke's post on the Five Year Reform Programme].

In June 2008, experiments on the adoption of uniform sentencing guidelines began in Xiamen, Shenzhen, Beijing (Haidian district), Shanghai (Pudong district), Jiangyan (Jiangsu), Nanchang, Xi'an (Pilin district) and in some other localities. Some of these local courts have already adopted sentencing guidelines (They can be found in this book), so the "People's courts sentencing guidelines" might share some similarities will them [Read Legal Daily's article]

 

1.02.2009

Draft CL amendments - Article 253 opening, concealing or destroying correspondence

Article 253

Any postal worker who opens without authorization or conceals or destroys mail or telegrams shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than two years or criminal detention.

Whoever steals money or property by committing the crime mentioned in the preceding paragraph shall be convicted and given a heavier punishment in accordance with the provisions of Article 264 of this Law [theft].

Translation courtesy CECC
Together with art. 253, this is the only Criminal Law provision on protection of privacy. The rationale of this article is protecting citizens' freedom and privacy of correspondence. Hence the range of "criminal subjects" (犯罪主体,Verbrechenssubjekt, soggetto attivo) is limited to postal workers. Those who steal valuables from the mail are punished for the crime of theft.

Addition of a paragraph on protection of privacy has been proposed:

Personnel of state organs, or financial, telecommunications, communication, educational, medical and other work units who in carrying out their duties or in the course of providing services sell or unlawfully provide citizens' personal information obtained through their unit shall be be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than two years or criminal detention if circumstances are serious and shall also - or shall only - be fined.

Those who steal, buy or obtain information mentioned in the preceding paragraph by any other unlawful mean shall - if circumstances are serious - be punished in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph.

国家机关或者金融、电信、交通、教育、医疗等单位的工作人员,违反国家规 定,将本单位在履行职责或者提供服务过程中获得的公民个人信息,出售或者非法提供给他人,情节严重的,处三年以下有期徒刑或者拘役,并处或者单处罚金。

窃取、收买或者以其他方法非法获取上述信息,情节严重的,依照前款的规定处罚

During the second reading of the amendments discussions about article 253 focussed on the need to include provisions about the criminal liability of juristic persons. A notable exception was Li Yali (Tianjin people's congress deputy chairman). He remarked that China lacks legislation on the protection of personal information, and suggested to define the sphere of an individual's privacy.

The drafting of a law on the protection of personal information 个人信息保护法 was proposed in 2003. The full text of the proposal is available here.