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12.27.2015

法治政府建设实施纲要(2015-2020年)

《法治政府建设实施纲要(2015-2020年)》主要内容如下。
  党的十八大把法治政府基本建成确立为到2020年全面建成小康社会的重要目标之一,意义重大、影响深远、任务艰巨。为深入推进依法行政,加快建设法治政府,如期实现法治政府基本建成的奋斗目标,针对当前法治政府建设实际,制定本纲要。
  一、总体要求
  (一)指导思想
  高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中、五中全会精神,以马克思列宁主义、毛泽东思想、邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,根据全面建成小康社会、全面深化改革、全面依法治国、全面从严治党的战略布局,围绕建设中国特色社会主义法治体系、建设社会主义法治国家的全面推进依法治国总目标,坚持依法治国、依法执政、依法行政共同推进,坚持法治国家、法治政府、法治社会一体建设,深入推进依法行政,加快建设法治政府,培育和践行社会主义核心价值观,弘扬社会主义法治精神,推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化,为实现“两个一百年”奋斗目标、实现中华民族伟大复兴的中国梦提供有力法治保障。
  (二)总体目标
  经过坚持不懈的努力,到2020年基本建成职能科学、权责法定、执法严明、公开公正、廉洁高效、守法诚信的法治政府。
  (三)基本原则
  建设法治政府必须坚持中国共产党的领导,坚持人民主体地位,坚持法律面前人人平等,坚持依法治国和以德治国相结合,坚持从中国实际出发,坚持依宪施政、依法行政、简政放权,把政府工作全面纳入法治轨道,实行法治政府建设与创新政府、廉洁政府、服务型政府建设相结合。
  (四)衡量标准
  政府职能依法全面履行,依法行政制度体系完备,行政决策科学民主合法,宪法法律严格公正实施,行政权力规范透明运行,人民权益切实有效保障,依法行政能力普遍提高。
  二、主要任务和具体措施
  (一)依法全面履行政府职能
  目标:牢固树立创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的发展理念,坚持政企分开、政资分开、政事分开、政社分开,简政放权、放管结合、优化服务,政府与市场、政府与社会的关系基本理顺,政府职能切实转变,宏观调控、市场监管、社会管理、公共服务、环境保护等职责依法全面履行。
  措施:
  1.深化行政审批制度改革。全面清理行政审批事项,全部取消非行政许可审批事项。最大程度减少对生产经营活动的许可,最大限度缩小投资项目审批、核准的范围,最大幅度减少对各类机构及其活动的认定。取消不符合行政许可法规定的资质资格准入许可,研究建立国家职业资格目录清单管理制度。直接面向基层、量大面广、由地方实施更方便有效的行政审批事项,一律下放地方和基层管理。加大取消和下放束缚企业生产经营、影响群众就业创业行政许可事项的力度,做好已取消和下放行政审批事项的落实和衔接,鼓励大众创业、万众创新。严格控制新设行政许可,加强合法性、必要性、合理性审查论证。对增加企业和公民负担的证照进行清理规范。对保留的行政审批事项,探索目录化、编码化管理,全面推行一个窗口办理、并联办理、限时办理、规范办理、透明办理、网上办理,提高行政效能,激发社会活力。加快投资项目在线审批监管平台建设,实施在线监测并向社会公开,2015年实现部门间的横向联通及中央和地方的纵向贯通。加快推进相对集中行政许可权工作,支持地方开展相对集中行政许可权改革试点。全面清理规范行政审批中介服务,对保留的行政审批中介服务实行清单管理并向社会公布,坚决整治“红顶中介”,切断行政机关与中介服务机构之间的利益链,推进中介服务行业公平竞争。
  2.大力推行权力清单、责任清单、负面清单制度并实行动态管理。在全面梳理、清理调整、审核确认、优化流程的基础上,将政府职能、法律依据、实施主体、职责权限、管理流程、监督方式等事项以权力清单的形式向社会公开,逐一厘清与行政权力相对应的责任事项、责任主体、责任方式。省级政府2015年年底前、市县两级政府2016年年底前基本完成政府工作部门、依法承担行政职能的事业单位权力清单的公布工作。开展编制国务院部门权力和责任清单试点。实行统一的市场准入制度,在制定负面清单基础上,各类市场主体可依法平等进入清单之外领域。建立行政事业性收费和政府性基金清单制度,清理取消不合法、不合规、不合理的收费基金项目,公布全国性、中央部门和单位及省级收费目录清单,减轻企业和公民负担。2015年年底前,没有法律法规依据且未按规定批准、越权设立的收费基金项目,政府提供普遍公共服务或体现一般性管理职能的行政事业性收费,没有法定依据的行政审批中介服务项目及收费,一律取消;擅自提高征收标准、扩大征收范围的,一律停止执行。
  3.优化政府组织结构。完善行政组织和行政程序法律制度,推进机构、职能、权限、程序、责任法定化。深化行政体制改革,优化政府机构设置、职能配置、工作流程,理顺部门职责关系,积极稳妥实施大部门制。创新行政管理方式,完善政府绩效管理。推进各级政府事权规范化、法律化,完善不同层级政府特别是中央和地方政府事权法律制度,强化中央政府宏观管理、制度设定职责和必要的执法权,强化省级政府统筹推进区域内基本公共服务均等化职责,强化市县政府执行职责。
  4.完善宏观调控。健全发展规划、投资管理、财政税收、金融等方面法律制度,加强发展战略、规划、政策、标准等制定和实施。切实转变政府投资管理职能,确立企业投资主体地位,制定并公开企业投资项目核准目录清单。完善主要由市场决定价格的机制,大幅缩减政府定价种类和项目,制定并公布政府定价目录,全面放开竞争性领域商品和服务价格。
  5.加强市场监管。清理、废除妨碍全国统一市场和公平竞争的各种规定和做法,破除部门保护、地区封锁和行业垄断。深化商事制度改革,继续清理工商登记前置审批,加快工商登记后置审批改革。进一步推进工商注册登记制度便利化,2015年年底前实现工商营业执照、组织机构代码证、税务登记证“三证合一”、“一照一码”。推行电子营业执照和全程电子化登记,实行“一址多照”和“一照多址”。加强事中事后监管,创新市场监管方式,完善市场监管体系,建立透明、规范、高效的投资项目纵横联动、协同监管机制,实行综合监管,推广随机抽查,探索“智能”监管。加强社会信用体系建设,建立健全全国统一的社会信用代码制度和信用信息共享交换平台,推进企业信用信息公示“全国一张网”建设,依法保护企业和个人信息安全。完善外资管理法律法规,保持外资政策稳定、透明、可预期。健全对外投资促进制度和服务体系,支持企业扩大对外投资,推动装备、技术、标准、服务走出去。
  6.创新社会治理。加强社会治理法律、体制机制、能力、人才队伍和信息化建设,提高社会治理科学化和法治化水平。完善社会组织登记管理制度。适合由社会组织提供的公共服务和解决的事项,交由社会组织承担。支持和发展社会工作服务机构和志愿服务组织。规范和引导网络社团社群健康发展,加强监督管理。深入推进社会治安综合治理,健全落实领导责任制。完善立体化社会治安防控体系,有效防范管控影响社会安定的问题,保护人民生命财产安全。提高公共突发事件防范处置和防灾救灾减灾能力。全方位强化安全生产,全过程保障食品药品安全。推进社会自治,发挥市民公约、乡规民约、行业规章、团体章程等社会规范在社会治理中的积极作用。
  7.优化公共服务。着力促进教育、卫生、文化等社会事业健康发展,强化政府促进就业、调节收入分配和完善社会保障职能,加快形成政府主导、覆盖城乡、可持续的基本公共服务体系,实现基本公共服务标准化、均等化、法定化。建立健全政府购买公共服务制度,公开政府购买公共服务目录,加强政府购买公共服务质量监管。推进公共服务提供主体和提供方式多元化,凡属事务性管理服务,原则上都要引入竞争机制向社会购买;确需政府参与的,实行政府和社会资本合作模式。
  8.强化生态环境保护。加快建立和完善有效约束开发行为和促进绿色发展、循环发展、低碳发展的生态文明法律制度。深化资源型产品价格和税费改革,实行资源有偿使用制度和生态补偿制度。改革生态环境保护管理体制,完善并严格实行环境信息公开制度、环境影响评价制度和污染物排放总量控制制度。健全生态环境保护责任追究制度和生态环境损害赔偿制度。对领导干部实行自然资源资产离任审计。
(二)完善依法行政制度体系
  目标:提高政府立法质量,构建系统完备、科学规范、运行有效的依法行政制度体系,使政府管理各方面制度更加成熟更加定型,为建设社会主义市场经济、民主政治、先进文化、和谐社会、生态文明,促进人的全面发展,提供有力制度保障。
  措施:
  9.完善政府立法体制机制。严格落实立法法规定,坚持立改废释并举,完善行政法规、规章制定程序,健全政府立法立项、起草、论证、协调、审议机制,推进政府立法精细化,增强政府立法的及时性、系统性、针对性、有效性。完善立法项目向社会公开征集制度。通过开展立法前评估等方式,健全立法项目论证制度。重要行政管理法律法规由政府法制机构组织起草,有效防止部门利益和地方保护主义法律化。对部门间争议较大的重要立法事项,由决策机关引入第三方评估,充分听取各方意见,协调决定,不能久拖不决。探索委托第三方起草法律法规规章草案。定期开展法规规章立法后评估,提高政府立法科学性。对不适应改革和经济社会发展要求的法律法规规章,要及时修改和废止。加强行政法规、规章解释工作。
  10.加强重点领域政府立法。围绕党和国家中心工作,加快推进完善社会主义市场经济体制,发展社会主义民主政治,建设社会主义先进文化,创新社会治理,保障公民权利和改善民生,维护国家安全,保护生态环境和加强政府自身建设等领域的政府立法。坚持在法治下推进改革、在改革中完善法治,实现立法和改革决策相统一、相衔接,做到重大改革于法有据、立法主动适应改革和经济社会发展需要。对实践证明已经比较成熟的改革经验和行之有效的改革举措,要及时上升为法律法规规章。
  11.提高政府立法公众参与度。拓展社会各方有序参与政府立法的途径和方式。健全法律法规规章起草征求人大代表意见制度,充分发挥政协委员、民主党派、工商联、无党派人士、人民团体、社会组织在立法协商中的作用。建立有关国家机关、社会团体、专家学者等对政府立法中涉及的重大利益调整论证咨询机制。拟设定的制度涉及群众切身利益或各方面存在较大意见分歧的,要采取座谈会、论证会、听证会、问卷调查等形式广泛听取意见。除依法需要保密的外,法律法规规章草案要通过网络、报纸等媒体向社会公开征求意见,期限一般不少于30日。加强与社会公众的沟通,健全公众意见采纳情况反馈机制,广泛凝聚社会共识。
  12.加强规范性文件监督管理。完善规范性文件制定程序,落实合法性审查、集体讨论决定等制度,实行制定机关对规范性文件统一登记、统一编号、统一印发制度。规范性文件不得设定行政许可、行政处罚、行政强制等事项,不得减损公民、法人和其他组织合法权益或者增加其义务。涉及公民、法人和其他组织权利义务的规范性文件,应当按照法定要求和程序予以公布,未经公布的不得作为行政管理依据。加强备案审查制度和能力建设,把所有规范性文件纳入备案审查范围,健全公民、法人和其他组织对规范性文件的建议审查制度,加大备案审查力度,做到有件必备、有错必纠。
  13.建立行政法规、规章和规范性文件清理长效机制。根据全面深化改革、经济社会发展需要,以及上位法制定、修改、废止情况,及时清理有关行政法规、规章、规范性文件。自2015年起用3年时间,对国务院文件进行全面清理,清理结果向社会公布。2017年年底前,有关部门和地方政府要完成对现行行政法规、规章、规范性文件的清理工作,清理结果向社会公布。实行行政法规、规章、规范性文件目录和文本动态化、信息化管理,各级政府及其部门要根据规范性文件立改废情况及时作出调整并向社会公布。
(三)推进行政决策科学化、民主化、法治化
  目标:行政决策制度科学、程序正当、过程公开、责任明确,决策法定程序严格落实,决策质量显著提高,决策效率切实保证,违法决策、不当决策、拖延决策明显减少并得到及时纠正,行政决策公信力和执行力大幅提升。
  措施:
  14.健全依法决策机制。完善重大行政决策程序制度,明确决策主体、事项范围、法定程序、法律责任,规范决策流程,强化决策法定程序的刚性约束。
  15.增强公众参与实效。事关经济社会发展全局和涉及群众切身利益的重大行政决策事项,应当广泛听取意见,与利害关系人进行充分沟通,并注重听取有关人大代表、政协委员、人民团体、基层组织、社会组织的意见。各级行政机关特别是市县两级政府要加强公众参与平台建设,对社会关注度高的决策事项,应当公开信息、解释说明,及时反馈意见采纳情况和理由。推行文化教育、医疗卫生、资源开发、环境保护、公用事业等重大民生决策事项民意调查制度。
  16.提高专家论证和风险评估质量。加强中国特色新型智库建设,建立行政决策咨询论证专家库。对专业性、技术性较强的决策事项,应当组织专家、专业机构进行论证。选择论证专家要注重专业性、代表性、均衡性,支持其独立开展工作,逐步实行专家信息和论证意见公开。落实重大决策社会稳定风险评估机制。
  17.加强合法性审查。建立行政机关内部重大决策合法性审查机制,未经合法性审查或经审查不合法的,不得提交讨论。建立政府法制机构人员为主体、吸收专家和律师参加的法律顾问队伍,保证法律顾问在制定重大行政决策、推进依法行政中发挥积极作用。
  18.坚持集体讨论决定。重大行政决策应当经政府常务会议或者全体会议、部门领导班子会议讨论,由行政首长在集体讨论基础上作出决定。行政首长拟作出的决定与会议组成人员多数人的意见不一致的,应当在会上说明理由。集体讨论情况和决定要如实记录、完整存档。
  19.严格决策责任追究。决策机关应当跟踪决策执行情况和实施效果,根据实际需要进行重大行政决策后评估。健全并严格实施重大决策终身责任追究制度及责任倒查机制,对决策严重失误或者依法应该及时作出决策但久拖不决造成重大损失、恶劣影响的,严格追究行政首长、负有责任的其他领导人员和相关责任人员的党纪政纪和法律责任。
  (四)坚持严格规范公正文明执法
  目标:权责统一、权威高效的行政执法体制建立健全,法律法规规章得到严格实施,各类违法行为得到及时查处和制裁,公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益得到切实保障,经济社会秩序得到有效维护,行政违法或不当行为明显减少,对行政执法的社会满意度显著提高。
  措施:
  20.改革行政执法体制。根据不同层级政府的事权和职能,按照减少层次、整合队伍、提高效率的原则,合理配置执法力量。推进执法重心向市县两级政府下移,把机构改革、政府职能转变调整出来的人员编制重点用于充实基层执法力量。完善市县两级政府行政执法管理,加强统一领导和协调。大幅减少市县两级政府执法队伍种类,重点在食品药品安全、工商质检、公共卫生、安全生产、文化旅游、资源环境、农林水利、交通运输、城乡建设、海洋渔业、商务等领域内推行综合执法,支持有条件的领域推行跨部门综合执法。加大关系群众切身利益的重点领域执法力度。理顺城管执法体制,加强城市管理综合执法机构和队伍建设,提高执法和服务水平。理顺行政强制执行体制,科学配置行政强制执行权,提高行政强制执行效率。健全行政执法和刑事司法衔接机制,完善案件移送标准和程序,建立健全行政执法机关、公安机关、检察机关、审判机关信息共享、案情通报、案件移送制度。
  21.完善行政执法程序。建立健全行政裁量权基准制度,细化、量化行政裁量标准,规范裁量范围、种类、幅度。建立执法全过程记录制度,制定行政执法程序规范,明确具体操作流程,重点规范行政许可、行政处罚、行政强制、行政征收、行政收费、行政检查等执法行为。健全行政执法调查取证、告知、罚没收入管理等制度,明确听证、集体讨论决定的适用条件。完善行政执法权限协调机制,及时解决执法机关之间的权限争议,建立异地行政执法协助制度。严格执行重大行政执法决定法制审核制度,未经法制审核或者审核未通过的,不得作出决定。
  22.创新行政执法方式。推行行政执法公示制度。加强行政执法信息化建设和信息共享,有条件的地方和部门2016年年底前要建立统一的行政执法信息平台,完善网上执法办案及信息查询系统。强化科技、装备在行政执法中的应用。推广运用说服教育、劝导示范、行政指导、行政奖励等非强制性执法手段。健全公民和组织守法信用记录,完善守法诚信褒奖机制和违法失信行为惩戒机制。
  23.全面落实行政执法责任制。严格确定不同部门及机构、岗位执法人员的执法责任,建立健全常态化的责任追究机制。加强执法监督,加快建立统一的行政执法监督网络平台,建立健全投诉举报、情况通报等制度,坚决排除对执法活动的干预,防止和克服部门利益和地方保护主义,防止和克服执法工作中的利益驱动,惩治执法腐败现象。
  24.健全行政执法人员管理制度。2016年年底前,各地区各部门对行政执法人员进行一次严格清理,全面实行行政执法人员持证上岗和资格管理制度,未经执法资格考试合格,不得授予执法资格,不得从事执法活动。健全纪律约束机制,加强职业道德教育,全面提高执法人员素质。逐步推行行政执法人员平时考核制度,科学合理设计考核指标体系,考核结果作为执法人员职务级别调整、交流轮岗、教育培训、奖励惩戒的重要依据。规范执法辅助人员管理,明确其适用岗位、身份性质、职责权限、权利义务、聘用条件和程序等。
  25.加强行政执法保障。推动形成全社会支持行政执法机关依法履职的氛围。对妨碍行政机关正常工作秩序、阻碍行政执法人员依法履责的违法行为,坚决依法处理。各级党政机关和领导干部要支持行政执法机关依法公正行使职权,不得让行政执法人员做不符合法律规定的事情。行政机关履行执法职责所需经费,由各级政府纳入本级政府预算,保证执法经费足额拨付。改善执法条件,合理安排执法装备配备、科技建设方面的投入。严格执行罚缴分离和收支两条线管理制度,严禁下达或者变相下达罚没指标,严禁将行政事业性收费、罚没收入同部门利益直接或者变相挂钩。
 (五)强化对行政权力的制约和监督
  目标:科学有效的行政权力运行制约和监督体系基本形成,惩治和预防腐败体系进一步健全,各方面监督形成合力,人民群众的知情权、参与权、表达权、监督权得到切实保障,损害公民、法人和其他组织合法权益的违法行政行为得到及时纠正,违法行政责任人依法依纪受到严肃追究。
  措施:
  26.健全行政权力运行制约和监督体系。坚持用制度管权管事管人,坚持决策权、执行权、监督权既相互制约又相互协调,完善各方面监督制度,确保行政机关按照法定权限和程序行使权力。起草法律法规规章和规范性文件,要有效落实公开行政权力运行流程、惩治和预防腐败、防控廉政风险、防止利益冲突等要求,切实把权力关进制度的笼子。加强行政程序制度建设,严格规范作出各类行政行为的主体、权限、方式、步骤和时限。发挥政府诚信建设示范作用,加快政府守信践诺机制建设。加强公务员诚信管理,建立公务员诚信档案。
  27.自觉接受党内监督、人大监督、民主监督、司法监督。在党委对党风廉政建设和反腐败工作的统一领导下,各级政府及其部门党组(党委)要切实履行主体责任,主要负责人是第一责任人,对本级政府本部门党风廉政建设负总责。认真执行向本级人大及其常委会报告工作制度,接受询问和质询制度,报备行政法规、规章制度。认真研究处理人大及其常委会组成人员对政府工作提出的有关审议意见,及时研究办理人大代表和政协委员提出的意见和建议,切实改进工作。健全知情明政机制,政府相关部门向政协定期通报有关情况,为政协委员履职提供便利、创造条件。支持人民法院依法受理行政案件,健全行政机关依法出庭应诉制度,尊重并执行人民法院生效裁判。检察机关对在履行职责中发现的行政违法行为进行监督,行政机关应当积极配合。
  28.加强行政监督和审计监督。完善政府内部层级监督,改进上级行政机关对下级行政机关的监督,建立健全常态化、长效化监督制度。加强对政府内部权力的制约,对财政资金分配使用、国有资产监管、政府投资、政府采购、公共资源转让、公共工程建设等权力集中的部门和岗位实行分事行权、分岗设权、分级授权,定期轮岗,强化内部流程控制,防止权力滥用。各级监察机关要切实履行监督责任,确保廉政建设各项任务落实。完善审计制度,健全有利于依法独立行使审计监督权的审计管理体制,建立具有审计职业特点的审计人员管理制度,基本形成与国家治理体系和治理能力现代化相适应的审计监督机制。对公共资金、国有资产、国有资源和领导干部履行经济责任情况实行审计全覆盖。强化上级审计机关对下级审计机关的领导。
  29.完善社会监督和舆论监督机制。建立对行政机关违法行政行为投诉举报登记制度,畅通举报箱、电子信箱、热线电话等监督渠道,方便群众投诉举报、反映问题,依法及时调查处理违法行政行为。发挥报刊、广播、电视等传统媒体监督作用,加强与互联网等新兴媒体的互动,重视运用和规范网络监督,建立健全网络舆情监测、收集、研判、处置机制,推动网络监督规范化、法治化。
  30.全面推进政务公开。坚持以公开为常态、不公开为例外原则,推进决策公开、执行公开、管理公开、服务公开、结果公开。完善政府信息公开制度,拓宽政府信息公开渠道,进一步明确政府信息公开范围和内容。重点推进财政预算、公共资源配置、重大建设项目批准和实施、社会公益事业建设等领域的政府信息公开。完善政府新闻发言人、突发事件信息发布等制度,做好对热点敏感问题的舆论引导,及时回应人民群众关切。创新政务公开方式,加强互联网政务信息数据服务平台和便民服务平台建设,提高政务公开信息化、集中化水平。
  31.完善纠错问责机制。加强行政问责规范化、制度化建设,增强行政问责的针对性和时效性。加大问责力度,坚决纠正行政不作为、乱作为,坚决克服懒政、庸政、怠政,坚决惩处失职、渎职。认真落实党风廉政建设责任制,坚持有错必纠、有责必问,对“四风”问题突出、发生顶风违纪问题或者出现区域性、系统性腐败案件的地方、部门和单位,既要追究主体责任、监督责任,又要严肃追究领导责任。
  (六)依法有效化解社会矛盾纠纷
  目标:公民、法人和其他组织的合法权益得到切实维护,公正、高效、便捷、成本低廉的多元化矛盾纠纷解决机制全面形成,行政机关在预防、解决行政争议和民事纠纷中的作用充分发挥,通过法定渠道解决矛盾纠纷的比率大幅提升。
  措施:
  32.健全依法化解纠纷机制。构建对维护群众利益具有重大作用的制度体系,建立健全社会矛盾预警机制、利益表达机制、协商沟通机制、救济救助机制。及时收集分析热点、敏感、复杂矛盾纠纷信息,加强群体性、突发性事件预警监测。强化依法应对和处置群体性事件机制和能力。依法加强对影响或危害食品药品安全、安全生产、生态环境、网络安全、社会安全等方面重点问题的治理。加大普法力度,引导和支持公民、法人和其他组织依法表达诉求和维护权益。
  33.加强行政复议工作。完善行政复议制度,改革行政复议体制,积极探索整合地方行政复议职责。健全行政复议案件审理机制,加大公开听证审理力度,纠正违法或不当行政行为。提高行政复议办案质量,增强行政复议的专业性、透明度和公信力。县级以上地方政府要依法加强行政复议能力建设,推动相关机构设置、人员配备与所承担的工作任务相适应,充分发挥行政复议在解决行政争议中的重要作用。切实提高行政复议人员素质,落实办案场所和有关装备保障,行政复议经费列入本级政府预算。
  34.完善行政调解、行政裁决、仲裁制度。健全行政调解制度,进一步明确行政调解范围,完善行政调解机制,规范行政调解程序。健全行政裁决制度,强化行政机关解决同行政管理活动密切相关的民事纠纷功能。有关行政机关要依法开展行政调解、行政裁决工作,及时有效化解矛盾纠纷。完善仲裁制度,提高仲裁公信力,充分发挥仲裁解决经济纠纷、化解社会矛盾、促进社会和谐的作用。
  35.加强人民调解工作。贯彻落实人民调解法,健全人民调解组织网络,实现村委会、居委会人民调解组织全覆盖,推进企事业单位、乡镇街道、社会团体、行业组织中人民调解组织建设。重点协调解决消费者权益、劳动关系、医患关系、物业管理等方面的矛盾纠纷,促进当事人平等协商、公平公正解决矛盾纠纷。完善人民调解、行政调解、司法调解联动工作体系。
  36.改革信访工作制度。把信访纳入法治化轨道,保障合理合法诉求依照法律规定和程序就能得到合理合法的结果。规范信访工作程序,畅通群众诉求表达、利益协调和权益保障渠道,维护信访秩序。优化传统信访途径,实行网上受理信访制度,健全及时就地解决群众合理诉求机制。严格实行诉访分离,推进通过法定途径分类处理信访投诉请求,引导群众在法治框架内解决矛盾纠纷,完善涉法涉诉信访依法终结制度。
(七)全面提高政府工作人员法治思维和依法行政能力
  目标:政府工作人员特别是领导干部牢固树立宪法法律至上、法律面前人人平等、权由法定、权依法使等基本法治理念,恪守合法行政、合理行政、程序正当、高效便民、诚实守信、权责统一等依法行政基本要求,做尊法学法守法用法的模范,法治思维和依法行政能力明显提高,在法治轨道上全面推进政府各项工作。
  措施:
  37.树立重视法治素养和法治能力的用人导向。抓住领导干部这个全面依法治国的“关键少数”,把法治观念强不强、法治素养好不好作为衡量干部德才的重要标准,把能不能遵守法律、依法办事作为考察干部的重要内容,把严守党纪、恪守国法的干部用起来。在相同条件下,优先提拔使用法治素养好、依法办事能力强的干部。对特权思想严重、法治观念淡薄的干部要批评教育、督促整改,问题严重或违法违纪的,依法依纪严肃处理。
  38.加强对政府工作人员的法治教育培训。政府工作人员特别是领导干部要系统学习中国特色社会主义法治理论,学好宪法以及与自己所承担工作密切相关的法律法规。完善学法制度,国务院各部门、县级以上地方各级政府每年至少举办一期领导干部法治专题培训班,地方各级政府领导班子每年应当举办两期以上法治专题讲座。各级党校、行政学院、干部学院等要把宪法法律列为干部教育的必修课。健全行政执法人员岗位培训制度,每年组织开展行政执法人员通用法律知识、专门法律知识、新法律法规等专题培训。加大对公务员初任培训、任职培训中法律知识的培训力度。
  39.完善政府工作人员法治能力考查测试制度。加强对领导干部任职前法律知识考查和依法行政能力测试,将考查和测试结果作为领导干部任职的重要参考,促进政府及其部门负责人严格履行法治建设职责。优化公务员录用考试测查内容,增加公务员录用考试中法律知识的比重。实行公务员晋升依法行政考核制度。
  40.注重通过法治实践提高政府工作人员法治思维和依法行政能力。政府工作人员特别是领导干部想问题、作决策、办事情必须守法律、重程序、受监督,牢记职权法定,切实保护人民权益。要自觉运用法治思维和法治方式深化改革、推动发展、化解矛盾、维护稳定,依法治理经济,依法协调和处理各种利益问题,避免埋钉子、留尾巴,努力营造办事依法、遇事找法、解决问题用法、化解矛盾靠法的良好法治环境。注重发挥法律顾问和法律专家的咨询论证、审核把关作用。落实“谁执法谁普法”的普法责任制,建立行政执法人员以案释法制度,使执法人员在执法普法的同时不断提高自身法治素养和依法行政能力。
  三、组织保障和落实机制
  党的领导是全面推进依法治国、加快建设法治政府最根本的保证,必须坚持党总揽全局、协调各方,发挥各级党委领导核心作用,把党的领导贯彻到法治政府建设各方面。各级政府及其部门要自觉接受党的领导,切实增强建设法治政府的使命感、紧迫感和责任感,加强组织领导,强化工作责任,一级抓一级,层层抓落实。
  41.加强党对法治政府建设的领导。各级政府要在党委统一领导下,谋划和落实好法治政府建设的各项任务,主动向党委报告法治政府建设中的重大问题,及时消除制约法治政府建设的体制机制障碍。各级政府及其部门要结合本地区本部门实际,每年部署法治政府建设年度重点工作,发挥牵引和突破作用,带动法治政府建设各项工作全面深入开展。加强各级政府及其部门法制力量建设,不断提高工作人员的思想政治素质和业务工作能力。
  42.落实第一责任人责任。党政主要负责人要履行推进法治建设第一责任人职责,将建设法治政府摆在工作全局的重要位置。对不认真履行第一责任人职责,本地区本部门一年内发生多起重大违法行政案件、造成严重社会后果的,依法追究主要负责人的责任。县级以上地方各级政府每年第一季度要向同级党委、人大常委会和上一级政府报告上一年度法治政府建设情况,政府部门每年第一季度要向本级政府和上一级政府有关部门报告上一年度法治政府建设情况,报告要通过报刊、政府网站等向社会公开。
  43.强化考核评价和督促检查。各级党委要把法治建设成效作为衡量各级领导班子和领导干部工作实绩的重要内容,纳入政绩考核指标体系,充分发挥考核评价对法治政府建设的重要推动作用。各级政府及其部门的党组织要领导和监督本单位模范遵守宪法法律,坚决查处执法犯法、违法用权等行为。要加强对法治政府建设进展情况的督促检查,结合法治政府建设年度重点工作,开展定期检查和专项督查。对工作不力、问题较多的,要及时约谈、责令整改、通报批评。
  44.加强理论研究、典型示范和宣传引导。加强中国特色社会主义法治政府理论研究,坚持从中国实际出发,解决中国实际问题,为法治政府建设提供理论支撑和决策参考。积极开展建设法治政府示范创建活动,大力培育建设法治政府先进典型。通过召开现场会、经验交流会等形式及时总结、交流和推广经验,充分发挥先进典型的示范带动作用。定期通报和曝光违法行政典型案例,分析原因、吸取教训、改进工作。大力开展推进依法行政、建设法治政府宣传工作。加强正面宣传引导,以报刊、广播、电视、网络等多种媒体形式,广泛宣传法治政府建设目标、工作部署、先进经验、典型做法,正确引导舆论、凝聚社会共识,营造全社会关心、支持和参与法治政府建设的良好社会氛围。
  各地区各部门要结合实际制定实施方案,明确提出时间进度安排和可检验的成果形式,党政主要负责人要亲自抓落实,各项工作任务除本纲要有明确时间要求外,原则上应当在2019年年底前完成。中央和国家机关有关部门要根据部门职责承担并履行好本纲要确定的相关任务,并做好统筹协调,及时沟通协商,形成工作合力。作为牵头单位和负责单位的中央和国家机关有关部门和省级政府要建立法治政府建设年度进展报告制度,及时向党中央、国务院报告工作进展情况。国务院法制办要牵头做好督促检查。各地区各部门在实施本纲要的过程中,要注意研究法治政府建设的新情况新问题,解放思想、大胆实践、开拓进取、久久为功,运用法治思维和法治方式引领改革发展破障闯关、推动民生改善和社会公正,以更加奋发有为的精神状态,推动法治政府建设一步一个脚印向前迈进,为全面推进依法治国、建设社会主义法治国家作出扎扎实实的贡献。

12.14.2015

全国人大常委会2016年立法工作计划

 

全国人大常委会2016年立法工作计划

2015年12月14日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第五十八次委员长会议原则通过 2015年12月26日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第五十九次委员长会议第一次修改 2016年4月15日第十二届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第六十七次委员长会议第二次修改)



2016年是全面建成小康社会决胜阶段的开局之年。全国人大常委会2016年立法工作的总体要求是:全面贯彻党的十八大和十八届三中、四中、五中全会精神,以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入学习贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,按照“五位一体”总体布局和“四个全面”战略布局,牢固树立和贯彻落实创新、协调、绿色、开放、共享的新发展理念,坚持党的领导、人民当家作主、依法治国有机统一,发挥立法的引领和推动作用,加快重点领域立法,注重各方面法律制度的协调发展,深入推进科学立法、民主立法,遵循和把握立法规律,着力提高立法质量,加快形成完备的法律规范体系,以良法促进发展、保证善治,为实现“十三五”时期经济社会发展良好开局、夺取全面建成小康社会决胜阶段的伟大胜利作出新贡献。
    一、认真落实立法规划,做好相关法律案审议工作
    按照完善以宪法为核心的中国特色社会主义法律体系的要求,根据调整后的全国人大常委会立法规划和常委会2016年工作要点的安排,对2016年法律案审议工作作如下安排:
    (一)继续审议的法律案。
    1.深海海底区域资源勘探开发法(已通过)
    2.慈善法(已通过)
    3.境外非政府组织管理法(4月)
    4.野生动物保护法(修改)(4月)
    5.网络安全法(6月)
    6.民办教育促进法(修改)(6月)
    7.资产评估法(6月)
    8.电影产业促进法(8月)
    9.中医药法(8月)
    10.证券法(修改)(12月)
    (二)初次审议的法律案。
    1.国防交通法(4月)
    2.公共文化服务保障法(4月)
    3.红十字会法(修改)(6月)
    4.民法总则(6月)
    5.环境保护税法(6月)
    6.海洋环境保护法(修改)(8月)
    7.社区矫正法(10月)
    8.中小企业促进法(修改)(10月)
    9.国际刑事司法协助法(12月)
    10.水污染防治法(修改)(12月)
    以上项目审议时间,可以视情适当调整。
    落实党中央关于全面深化改革、全面推进依法治国、“十三五”规划、国防和军队改革等部署需要制定和修改的其他法律,适时安排审议。
    (三)预备项目。
    修改测绘法、矿山安全法、农民专业合作社法、行政复议法、行政监察法、档案法、现役军官法、税收征收管理法、土地管理法、标准化法。制定核安全法、粮食法、原子能法、外国投资法(修改外资三法,即中外合资经营企业法、外资企业法、中外合作经营企业法)、房地产税法、船舶吨税法、烟叶税法、公共图书馆法、电子商务法。这些立法项目由有关方面抓紧调研和起草工作,视情在2016年或者以后年度安排审议。还有一些立法项目,视情安排审议。
    (四)做好改革试点授权决定相关工作。
    按照党中央的决策部署,对实践条件还不成熟、需要先行先试的,依法及时作出授权决定。
    全国人大常委会关于授权最高人民法院、最高人民检察院在部分地区开展刑事案件速裁程序试点工作的决定,关于授权国务院在中国(上海)自由贸易试验区暂时调整有关法律规定的行政审批的决定,分别于2016年8月、2016年10月到期。授权决定实施期满,对实践证明可行,由有关方面及时依法提出修改有关法律的议案,适时安排全国人大常委会审议;或者结合相关立法工作统筹考虑。
    正在实行的全国人大常委会关于授权在部分地区开展人民陪审员制度改革试点工作的决定、关于授权最高人民检察院在部分地区开展公益诉讼试点工作的决定等相关改革试点授权决定,有关方面要认真做好审议试点情况中期报告的有关工作。
    二、适应新形势新任务新要求,加强和改进立法工作
    坚持党对立法工作的领导,加强立法工作组织协调和综合指导。坚持党中央的集中统一领导,切实保障党中央重大决策部署的贯彻落实。严格落实立法工作向党中央请示报告制度,需要党中央研究的重大立法事项、法律起草及审议中涉及重大体制和重大政策调整的问题,由全国人大常委会党组及时向党中央请示报告。发挥全国人大及其常委会在立法工作中的主导作用。进一步完善立法项目征集和论证制度,把好立项关。健全全国人大相关专门委员会、全国人大常委会工作委员会组织起草综合性、全局性、基础性等重要法律草案的机制,推动、督促国务院及其有关部门按照立法规划、计划及时组织起草法律草案,按时提请审议。涉及落实改革任务举措等立法项目,要加强与中央全面深化改革领导小组办公室等有关方面的沟通协调,共同推进相关立法工作。对法律需要制定配套法规的,有关专门委员会、常委会工作委员会要督促国务院及其有关部门和地方按照要求制定、修改、清理配套法规,确保法律有效实施。
    深入推进科学立法、民主立法。全面贯彻实施立法法,严格依照立法法规定的权限和程序,行使立法职权。发挥立法机关在表达、平衡、调整社会利益方面的重要作用,健全立法论证、听证机制,建立对立法中涉及的重大利益调整的论证咨询制度。继续做好法律案通过前评估和立法后评估工作。健全宪法解释程序机制,研究制定健全宪法解释工作程序的若干规定。坚持立改废释并举,继续加强法律解释工作。建立健全对授权决定到期后的处理机制。授权决定实施期满,对实践证明可行的,及时修改完善有关法律;对实践证明不宜调整的,恢复施行有关法律规定。做好法律案提请全国人民代表大会审议的相关工作,保障人大代表行使立法权力。把办理好人大代表依法提出的议案、建议与立法工作紧密结合起来,继续邀请相关人大代表参与立法论证、调研、审议等工作。加强和改进公布法律草案征求意见工作,逐步健全公众意见采纳反馈机制。扎实做好基层立法联系点工作,注重听取基层群众和一线干部对立法工作的意见。
    进一步加强备案审查制度和能力建设。进一步健全备案审查工作机制,注重发挥各专门委员会在主动审查方面的作用。依照立法法有关规定,对新制定的行政法规、司法解释逐件进行主动审查研究;围绕常委会工作重点和立法工作情况,适应设区的市、自治州行使地方立法权的实际情况,有重点地探索开展对地方性法规的主动审查。认真做好对国家机关和社会团体、企事业组织以及公民提出的审查建议的研究处理、反馈等工作。
    继续做好中国特色社会主义法治理论研究和立法宣传工作。认真总结、深入研究立法工作规律,指导立法实践。做好法律案起草、审议和通过后的宣传工作,重点加强审议阶段的宣传舆论引导,增强社会各方面对立法过程的了解和参与,使立法机关依法履职的过程成为引导社会舆论、凝聚各方共识、普及法律知识的过程,为法律正确、有效实施营造良好社会氛围。
    加强对地方人大立法工作的指导。以多种方式加强与地方人大的经验交流、工作研讨,加大对地方人大立法工作人员业务培训的力度。深入开展对地方立法的调查研究,扎实推进赋予设区的市地方立法权工作,推动加强设区的市立法能力建设。开好第二十二次全国地方立法研讨会。继续举办立法法培训班。
    大力加强立法工作队伍建设。切实增强政治意识、大局意识、核心意识、看齐意识,按照“三严三实”要求,以思想政治建设为核心,加强立法工作队伍建设,对干部从严教育、从严管理、从严监督,努力造就一支忠诚、干净、担当,政治业务素质高的立法工作队伍。加强业务能力建设,有计划、有组织、多层次、多渠道地对立法工作人员进行培训。创新立法人才培养和任用机制,着力培养立法骨干人才。多渠道选拔优秀立法人才,建立健全立法人才交流机制。加强立法智库建设,落实专门委员会、工作委员会立法专家顾问制度,充分调动各方面积极因素,增强立法工作力量。

11.30.2015

Foundation for Law and International Affairs Comments on the Charity Law of the PRC (Draft)




This post introduces a set of comments on the Charity Law of the PRC (Draft) I have prepared together with the Foundation for Law and International Affairs

The comments can be accessed here:



As those who have been following the vicissitudes of China's civil society sector will know, a Draft Charity Law was submitted to the National People's Congress at the end of October, and released for public comment.

During the time I spent in Hong Kong, I was fortunate enough to have had an opportunity to more closely observe the chances as well as the hurdles Chinese civil society organizations face every day. 

Earlier, I have stated how the decision to establish Party groups in Chinese and foreign civil society organizations is a much needed move to once and for all set straight the relationship between civil society organizations, and the local leadership. Knowing and addressing the needs and demands of all stakeholders is essential to ensure a smooth management and implementation of cooperation projects. The Foreign NGOs Management Law marked a phase where foreign donor agencies and NGOs may have wanted to pause and ask themselves whether, in trying to help address the needs of Chinese society, they were speaking a language compatible with the language spoken by Chinese stakeholders.

The Charity Law (Draft) signals our ingress in a different and much brighter phase, one in which we will witness a renewed emphasis on the role charities can play in social governance. After a 10 years gestation, the Charity Law will encourage a greater transparency and accountability of foreign as well as domestic NGOs. The focus on these two fundamental values will improve the contribution of China and foreign's civil society sector to good governance. The Draft law addresses these and other themes, yet other possibilities deserve a closer consideration. 

Preventing corruption and money laundering, defining a clearer role for foreign NGOs, tapping Chinese NGOs potential to promote global good governance are some of the areas that deserve further attention. These and other areas are explored in the Foundation for Law and International Affairs comments on the Charity Law. I hope the comments will be useful to the National People's Congress, the Ministry of Civil Affairs, domestic and international donors and practitioners, as well as the academic community. 


The Foundation for Law and International Affairs is an independent, nonpartisan, nonprofit organization mandated to promote academic and public discourse at the intersection of law and international affairs. The core vision of FLIA is to promote international cooperation and public dialogue through the development of new ideas and collaboration with various academic, governmental and civil actors. The mission of FLIA is to facilitate international scholarly activities, conduct high quality, independent research and policy analysis, engage in public education and awareness-building programs, as well as amplify the voice of the rising generation. 



A heartfelt thank you goes to the China Law Translate community, for an excellent translation of the Draft Charity Law. 

11.22.2015

A long overdue reply to Jean Christopher Mittelstaedt's criticism



This post is written in response to Jean Christopher Mittelstaedt's criticism of the paper I presented at the 2015 European China Law Studies Association Conference (here). Jean Christopher Mittelstaedt works with Stéphanie Balme at SciencesPo, in Paris. The criticism I received from him is, this far, the best and most sophisticated criticism I have ever received. I am not posting the response he sent me. Those who are interested in the question of how we should approach Chinese law may want to get in touch to explore possible ways to start a broader public conversation on this and similar points. 

Here is, however, a summary of what Christopher wrote. Among others, my paper holds that principles in Western law are equivalent to "原则" in Chinese law, and therefore "Seeking Truth from Facts" functions as a legal principle. 

Christopher's criticism takes aim at the question of what a "principle" and what a "原则" are, according to the paper. To understand a language, he writes, we have to live within it. Language posits us within a worldview, and determines our horizon. Our horizon however expands when we enter a foreign language. Whenever we acquire command of one or more foreign languages, we acquire the ability to live in between two or more different worlds, without negating the worldview our mother tongue has bestowed on us. 

The most interesting question, here, would be what happens to the speaker's worldview, what does it mean to our use of language, which semantic detours, and how many of them the speaker has to take when the general consensus prohibits the speaker or writer to use his true mother tongue but, this question relates to philosophy of language more than to anything else.

When we speak two or more languages, we find ourselves entangled in the problem of interpretation: when we translate from language A to language B, we automatically add an additional layer of interpretation to the meaning B has in the target language. This is a general problem, the critique says, evident in my  acceptance of what a "principle" is, and in my projecting the meaning of "principle" onto yuanze 原则. "Principle" does not correspond to the meaning of yuanze 原则. yuanze 原则  was born within a specific horizon of meaning, one that has to be studied and understood. The paper I wrote criticizes the brutalization of concepts in Chinese law, the separation of concepts from the contexts that give them meaning but, the same brutalization is evident in my analysis of what "Seeking Truth from Facts mean". 



1


This response does not put forward a defense of the paper I wrote in September. I believe that the endeavor of:

(1) isolating a word, or a concept, or anything else in Chinese law

AND 

(2) explaining the word, concept etc. in light of a meaning that originates from the context within which the interpreter operates; or a meaning the interpreter attributes to those who use the explanandum (= thing to be explained) in China

is defensible on cognitive grounds only.


While we cannot make sense of the world around us in the absence of at least one cognitive scheme, any attempt to defend the paper on cognitive grounds would amount to nothing more than a statement that:


“because the meaning I have constructed for X according to how I see the world, is the meaning of “legal principle in a Western sense” [where "Western sense is clearly another construct"] then, whenever a Chinese person encounters X he will give to X the same meaning I gave to it, or at least very similar one.”

This statement says more about the interpreter, and perhaps about the interpretive consensus within which the interpreter operates, than it does about the explanandum. If this point is accepted, then the question remains of why I wrote a paper where paragraph 2 bends back upon itself. Differently stated: why does paragraph 2 tells us a lot about how we Westerners look at principles but, it doesn't say anything about how Chinese people conceive of yuanze 原则?



2


After all, I have stated that one of my goals is performing what I playfully call “psychoanalyses” of the concepts and "mechanisms" I encounter. In other words, if those who make, interpret and use the law are historical beings whose goals include solving problems as these problems exist in their societies, perhaps their statements could be read à la lettre


For instance, the words in article 33 of the PRC Constitution “the State respects and preserves human rights” can be read as meaning that the state respects and protects human rights. In the absence of nothing less than a clear statement to the contrary emanating from a constitutional authority, perhaps we would not want to assume that article 33 paragraph (3) was included in the PRC Constitution with the intent to pay lip service to rights that belong to every human being. An interpretation based on either the assumption that 


(1) Chinese politicians and legislators will always and only say the contrary of what they mean, or 

(2) in theory they may truly mean what they say but, they are in practice unable to achieve their purposes because they have adopted a different set of political principles 

would be problematic.

In the paper, I explained how I am trying to 'listen' to the political/legal system impartially:


Differently from Michael Dowdle's concepts of “constitutional listening”, which itself is an adaptation of the principle of charity, impartial listening does not involve “finding the most coherent interpretation we can” for legal statements. Neither does it involve the Occamian simplicity principle. The human mind strives for explanations which are as simple and as coherent as possible, and it is therefore natural that our search for clarity, simplicity and coherence leads us to overlook interpretations that seem, to us, to lack these qualities. However, simplicity and coherence may be more an aspiration of those who try to understand Chinese ideology and law, than an objective feature of either ideology, law or both. If this is the case, then the very presupposition that the best possible explanation is the simplest or most coherent one will not enable a better understanding of the law. A seeming incoherence between two or more of the concepts or principles stated or embodied by the same piece of legislation, between law and interpretation, interpretation and enforcement or adjudication ought to be considered among the normal features of the legal system. Impartial listening takes into account the possibility that both coherence and incoherence are normal components of a legal system. Therefore:


(i) it abstains from finding any interpretation that attempts to reduce incoherence, or to simplify complexity;

(ii) it accepts that, in stating principles which may appear naive or incoherent, the law-maker, or the exegete, is stating what he believes to be the truth, using the language that he believes to be acceptable in the political-legal environment within which he operates;  
(iii) it considers naivete, excessive simplicity (or complexity), incoherence (or coherence) between concepts and principles as given, and possible symptoms of political or legal dynamics that deserve a further exploration.


It seems that the paper starts out on the right track but then, it derails as it falls back in the very same cognitive scheme it tries to avoid. Yet paragraphs 3 illustrates how “Seeking Truth from Facts” became among others a 原则 yuanze, and some of the meanings that those who use “Seeking Truth from Facts” say “Seeking Truth from Facts” has. Isn't this a contradiction I could have easily avoided? 

To give an adequate response to Christopher's criticism, an explanation of how I conceived the paper, and a disclosure of the intentions I had in mind as I set out to write the paper are necessary. 


3

To explain how I conceived the paper, I should try to explain how I read Chinese texts. Here, the 'how I read Chinese texts' relates not to the techniques I have learned, and to those I am trying to develop (described here, in part). The 'how I read' in the context of this post relates to my perception of the text, and what kind of cognitive processes my perception of the text triggers. 

When reading a Chinese text, or a text in an alphabetic language, persons may experience the text verbally, in the sense that upon seeing the characters 实事求是 or the words “Seek Truth from Facts” they may think in words, verbalizing the words in their mind. I do not. I experience the text in a different way. Whenever I read, I visualize each and every word in roughly 50 per cent of the page (25 per cent if the text is in Chinese) with a single glance. I do not verbalize the words in my mind but, I conceive their meaning (in some case the meanings) visually, as in the case when a person sees a road sign:


Sometimes, I conceive their meaning non-visually, and non-verbally. Sometimes, seeing Chinese characters triggers a flow of images. Sometimes, it is as if characters were moveable components, that could be rotated, shuffled, and arranged at will in the same way wooden alphabet blocks can. I see the text as if the text was not the unitary whole that it is (or it claims to be, or it seems), but a composite of various units of meaning, which are connected in many different ways:








Each unit of meaning may have been born at a different time, because of a variety of different reasons, and it may acquired one or more different meanings over time. The hypothesis that units without meaning exist in legal texts is an hypothesis I reject on very simple grounds: 



If "shishi qiushi" really contained no information, then it wouldn't have been carved on the stone placed at the East Gate of the People's University (=Renmin University of China). 




While reading and commenting on the CCP Statute at Law at the End of The Day,  upon seeing 实事求是 I had a flashback of each one of the places, each one of the texts, and each one of the practices where I saw those words, that slogan, motto, chengyu, or principle carved, painted, written, spoken or acted upon. I understood that these artifacts, places, texts, actions etc. were somehow related because, not unlike polyhedra, Chinese tifas and 原则 do have different faces (meanings). Some yuanze perhaps are "weightier" that others, and while the yuanze  can be ordered hierarchically, such an ordering is not the only possibility....




4

The intentions I had in mind when I wrote the paper were  many.

I wanted to give an example of how we may try to understand the information conveyed to us by all those linguistic units we do not really understand. (If we truly understood them, we would not dismiss them as Communist blabber without at least attempting to perform an analysis of what their meaning may be). 

I wanted readers to understand how, in reality, principles are neither  transcendent, nor are they unchanging truths. Principles and 原则 are man-made. They are created in a specific historical, cultural, political, and social context in response to distinct needs,problems, or wishes. That 原则 are man-made, and that principles are man-made too, given how they derive from experience and empirical observation, does not say anything as to whether one's conception of law is consequentialist or deontological. What I found interesting about principles and  原则 is that both of them are  ordinary words, words that have transcended the sphere  of ordinary language to acquire a different kind of communicative function. 

I am trying to work outside of all the approaches, and techniques of China studies, with the goal to unveil the cognitive frameworks I have been using for the past ten or twelve years as a result of being (among many other things) a "China scholar", and possibly understand where they work, and where they don't. Trying to step out these cognitive frameworks is possible only if one becomes aware of them first. Again, one can become aware of these cognitive frameworks by listening nonjudgmentally and impartially to what the field says.  

Last, but not least, I wanted to stimulate a debate or at least a discussion on whether our current approaches are suited to our goals. As I have explained on at least three different occasions, and in different European cities, I felt that after spending twelve years working mostly on criminal justice, I was hitting a wall that limited my comprehension of what Chinese law is. This wall was a wall made by those ideas,  approaches and techniques that are more or less taken for granted, and therefore seldom interrogated. 

One of my goals is understanding what "X" means and how it works, where X may be any concept or institution in China's legal system. If research is collaborative, then generating some debate at least was essential to achieving this goal. Because of this reason, I deliberately placed a few fallacies, and elements  of internal incoherence in the draft version of the paper. Among others, I took the provocative moves of:


a) stating that a semantic equivalence between "principle" and "yuanze" exists, without performing a semantic or etymological analysis of  "yuanze". In fact, I wrote what "Seeking Truth from Facts" means, according to what some of those who use "Seeking Truth from Facts" say it means but, I never said what "yuanze" means, according to what those who write or talk about "yuanze" say it means. 

b) explaining what a principle means to "Westerners" by appealing to authority. In so doing, I projected an alleged and perhaps non-existent "Western view" of what a legal principle is on China, while    at the same time decrying the use of Western standards to look at Chinese law. 

c) suggesting that principles are at the same time eternal unchanging truths and man-made, interpretive entities that do change over time. 



11.12.2015

Ministry of Civil Affairs Guiding Opinion on Stregthening and Improving the Work of Education and Training of Civil Society Organizations.

Ministry of Civil Affairs Guiding Opinion on Stregthening and Improving the Work of Education and Training of Civil Society Organizations.

To Civil Affairs Bureaus (Offices) of all Provinces, Autonomous Regions; Civil Affairs Bureaus of all provincial-level cities, the Civil Affair Bureau of the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps:

Carrying out training and education of civil society organizations is an important means to build high quality (suzhi) personnel of civil society organizations, and the foundation of guiding (yindao) the healthy development of civil society organizations. In recent years, Civil Affairs Departments in all provinces have highly regarded the work of educating and training civil society organizations, the scope of training has gradually broadened; funding has increased year after year; the results of traning have constantly improved, effectively promoting the modernization of civil society organizations' governance system and governance capacity. 

However, teaching and training of civil society organizations still has problems such as obsolete teaching materials, a weak teacher corps; univocal didactic methods which are not sufficiently connected to the management of civil society organizations. Education and training work awaits systematization, regularization and professionalization. The following guiding opinion is enacted to implement the spirit of the 18th Party Congress, and of its Second, Third and Fourth Plenary Meetings, further strengthen and improve civil society organizations' education and training, increase the coverage and impact of education and training work. 


1. Overall requirements of strengthening and improving civil society organizations' education and training.


The guiding thought of strengthening and improving civil society organizations' education and training is: holding high the great banner of Socialism with Chinese Characteristicts, taking Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Important Thought of the “Three Represents” and the Scientific Outlook on Development as a guide; thoroughly implement the spirit of the important speeches of General Secretary Xi Jinping, closely focus on the topic of promoting the modernization of National governance systems and governance capacity. Closely focus on the objective of constructing a modern civil society system. Emphasize the guidance of education, raise capacity, bring into full play Unity. Focus on the regularization of infrastructural systems combined with the innovation of mechanisms, to accelerate the formation of a new patter of education and training of Civil Society Organizations with Chinese Characteristics. 


Strengthening and improving civil society organizations' education and training must uphold the following principles: 

(1) Uphold serving the overall situation. Give full play to the guiding function of education and training, promote the healthy development of civil society organizations.

(2) Uphold division by levels and the classification in categories. Organize the implementation level -by-level, giving prominence to [civil society organizations] driven by demand, take improving capacity as the main line, according to the characteristics of the category of targets of education and training.

(3) Uphold reform and innovation. Link reform and innovation throughout the entire training and education process, enhance the appeal and enthusiasm of work, guarantee quality and effectiveness. 


2. Further specify demand-driven education and training goals.

Move from the most direct, practical and urgent needs of civil society organizations, to overall plan education and training work, strive to basically establish, by 2020, an energetic civil society organizations training and education system which fits the development of civil society organizations. 

On the basis of the existing education and training work, curriculum development and the construction of a teaching system have made an enthusiastic progress, the ranks of faculty have been further strengthented, the reform of didactic methods and procedures has achieved a clear success, an basic system to guaranttee education and training has been established, the capacity of civil society organizations has been further improve, and a climate of social care and support for the development of civil society organizations has been further enhanced. 


3. Accelerate the development of teaching and training curricula and materials

Optimize the curriculum. Focus on improving the capacity of social organization, increase the sense of responsibility of the staff of social organizations, their sense of integrity, sense of service, sense of innovation, and the overal planning of the curriculum. Establish a reasonable curriculum according to the characteristics and professional responsibilities of the targets of education and training, to make civil society organization understand, master and use [what they study]. 

Perfect the teaching materials system. According to the principle of scientific use, adapt to the training needs of different levels and different categories, compile comprehensive as well as specialized teaching materials that renew knowledge and raise capacity. Increase the compilation of practical and case-based teaching materials, enthusiastically develop exemplary teaching and training materials for civil society organization. Where local conditions allow, teaching materials with local characteristics can be compiled, to gradually form a diversified civil society organizations teaching materials system with a coherent content. 


4. Concentrate efforts on the education and training of teachers

Expand teaching resources. Rely on the main channels of civil administration bureaucracies to fully use the advantages of civil society organizations with broad connections and many channels. Hire Party-state leading cadres, experts and scholars and relevant personnel of civil society organizations who have a high level of policy and theory and rich experience as teachers. Establish a teachers' database to implement a sharing of teaching resources. Emphasize scouting and cultivating excellent human resourcs in the teaching and training of civil society organizations. Encourage and support the cultivation of teachers specialized in civil society organizations at civil affairs vocational institutions. 

Raise teachers' capacity. Strengthen teachers' training, encourage follow-up reasearch on major theoretical and practical problems of civil society organization, promote teaching through research, continuously raise teaching capacity. Regularly organize civil society organizations teachers' training, exchanges of teaching experiences, explorations of the regulation of teaching. Continuously raise the scientific level of education and training. An incentive mechanisms for teachers who make outstanding contributions to the work of civil society organizations' teaching and training must be established, to appropriately reward them. 


5. Push forward the reform of didactic methods.

Enrich didactic methods. Respect the professional characteristics of the staff of civil society organizations, and conduct education and training through methods attractive to civil society organizations. Encourage the use of new teaching methods as micro-lessons, and micro-classes. Emphasize practical teaching, use on-site observations and other channels to raise the capacity to solve practical problems. Carry out quality-development, strengthen team-building, raise the staff's sense of mission. Enthusiastically develop online courses, expand distance education, broaden the scope of teaching and training. 

Expand didactic methods. Integrate frontal lecturing, heuristics, participatory and case-based methods. Strengthen interactivity, raise the effectiveness of teaching. Proceed with the construction of a databases of education and training cases of civil society organizations. 


6. Establish a sound education and training work security system.

Conduct education and training according to categories. Estend the scope of education and training of newly recruited staff of civil society organizations, focus on improving civil society organizations' adaptive capacity. Develop the training of responsible personnel of civil society organizations, focusing on improving the leadership capacity of qualified leaders. Implement a training curriculum for general secretaries of civil society organizations, whereby in principle newly appointed general secretaries must participate to training and education within one year from their date of appointment. Strengthen the training and education of legal representatives of civil society organizations. Reinforce the vocational training of civil society organizations' staff, focus on improving their professional capacity. Promote the continuing education of civil society organizations' staff, draw support from the knowledge innovation engineering of national professional talents, to forge the troops of the leading talents of civil society organizations. Encourage qualified institutions to offer courses on civil society organizations, explore the establishment of professional education of varying educational levels for civil society organizations.


Expand education and training resources. Rely on civil affairs educational institutions, take advantage of the superiority of higher educational institutions and scientific research institutions and of social forces, to promote the integration of resources, develop the construction of education and training bases. Strive to obtain the support of relevant departments. Coordinate with Party Schools (Schools of Public Administration) to carry out education and training work of social organizations. Guide social forces to undertake education and training work by methods such as the purchase of their services, and explore the quality assessment of teaching.

Guarantee the funding of education and training. Funds for the education and training of civil society organizations shall be included in the budget for the management of civil society organizations. Where conditions exist, localities may include civil society organizations' education and training under the items of government purchase. Promote the charitable contributions of social forces to education and training, encourage public service education and training. Standardize financial management, austere and frugal education, improve the efficient use of capital.



7. Conscientiously organize and lead civil society organizations' education and training work.

Establish coordination mechanisms. Civil affairs departments at all levels must attach important to strengthening civil society organizations' education and training work, establish an unified education and training coordination system that practices “unified management, division of responsibilty, coordination, and is result-oriented”, and provides timely solutions to the difficulties and problems of education and training work. 

Organize implementation hierarchically. The Ministry of Civil Affairs is responsible to planning civil society organizations' education and training, compiling basic and exemplary teaching materials, establishing national-level education and training teachers' liberaries and education training bases, and it is mainly responsible for civil society organizations' education and training at the ministerial level. Local departments for civil affairs must be realistic, and focus on strengthening civil society organizations' education and training work at the local levels.

Intensify propaganda. Conscientiously sum up and promote typical experiences and successful practices in education and training work. Uninterruptedly raise the relevance and effectiveness of education and training work. Strengthen theoretical research on civil society organizations' education and training. Enthusiastically explore the regulation of civil society organizations' education and training. 


Ministry of Civil Affairs, 3 November 2015





民政部关于加强和改进社会组织教育培训工作的指导意见




各省、自治区、直辖市民政厅(局),各计划单列市民政局,新疆生产建设兵团民政局:

开展社会组织教育培训工作,是建设高素质社会组织人才队伍的重要手段,是引导社会组织健康有序发展的基础工程。近年来,各地民政部门高度重视社会组织教育培训工作,培训规模逐步扩大、经费投入逐年增加、培训效果不断增强,有力地推进了社会组织治理体系和治理能力现代化。但是,社会组织教育培训工作还存在教材建设滞后、师资队伍薄弱、教学方法手段单一、与社会组织管理工作衔接不够紧密等问题,教育培训工作的系统化、规范化、专业化亟待加强。为贯彻落实党的十八大和十八届二中、三中、四中全会精神,进一步加强和改进社会组织教育培训工作,提高教育培训工作的覆盖面和影响力,现提出以下指导意见。

一、加强和改进社会组织教育培训工作的总体要求

加强和改进社会组织教育培训工作的指导思想是:高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入贯彻习近平总书记系列重要讲话精神,紧紧围绕推进国家治理体系和治理能力现代化这一主题,紧紧围绕建立现代社会组织体制这一目标,注重教育引导、提高能力、发挥作用相统一,注重基础建设、制度规范、机制创新相结合,加快形成具有中国社会组织特色的教育培训新格局。

加强和改进社会组织教育培训工作要坚持以下原则:(一)坚持服务大局。充分发挥教育培训的教育引导功能,促进社会组织健康有序发展。(二)坚持分级分类。突出需求导向,以提高能力为主线,根据教育培训对象的类型特点,分级组织实施。(三)坚持改革创新。把改革创新贯穿于教育培训全过程,增强工作的吸引力感染力,确保质量和效果。

二、进一步明确需求导向的教育培训目标

从社会组织最直接、最现实、最迫切的需求出发,统筹规划教育培训工作,争取到2020年基本建立与社会组织发展相适应、有活力的社会组织教育培训体系。

在现有教育培训工作的基础上,课程开发和教材体系建设取得积极进展,师资队伍进一步加强,教学方式方法改革成效明显,教育培训保障制度初步建立,社会组织的能力得到进一步提升,全社会关心和支持社会组织发展的氛围进一步增强。

三、加快开发教育培训课程和教材

优化课程设置。围绕提高社会组织能力,增强社会组织从业人员的责任意识、诚信意识、服务意识、创新意识,总体规划课程设置。根据教育培训对象的特点和岗位职责,合理设置课程,让社会组织听得懂、学得会、用得上。

完善教材体系。根据科学实用原则,适应不同层次、不同类别培训的需要,编写社会组织综合性与专业性、知识更新和能力提升教材,加大实务与案例教材编写力度,积极开发社会组织教育培训示范性教材,有条件的地方,可组织编写地方特色教材,逐步形成形式多样、内容衔接的社会组织教材体系。

四、着力抓好教育培训师资建设

拓展师资来源。依托民政系统主渠道,充分运用社会组织联系广泛、渠道多样的优势,选聘政策理论水平高、实践经验丰富的党政机关领导干部、专家学者和社会组织相关人员担任授课教师。建立社会组织师资库,实现师资资源共享。重视发现和培养社会组织教育培训的优秀人才。鼓励和支持民政职业院校培养专职社会组织教师。

提高师资能力。加强对师资的培训,鼓励对社会组织重大理论问题和实践问题进行跟踪研究,以研究促教学,不断提高教育教学能力。定期举办社会组织教育培训论坛,交流教育教学经验,探索教育教学规律,不断提高教育培训的科学化水平。建立激励机制,对社会组织教育培训工作作出突出贡献的教师,要以适当方式予以奖励。

五、扎实推进教学方式方法改革

丰富教学方式。尊重社会组织从业人员职业特点,以社会组织喜闻乐见的方式开展教育培训。鼓励运用微课、慕课等新型教学方法。突出实践教学,运用现场观摩等途径提高解决实际问题的能力。开展素质拓展,加强团队建设,增强从业人员的使命感。积极开发在线课程,开展网络远程教育,扩大教育培训覆盖面。

拓展教学方法。综合运用讲授式、启发式、参与式和案例式等教学方法,加强交流互动,提高教育培训效果。着手建立社会组织教育培训案例库。

六、建立健全教育培训工作保障制度

分类开展教育培训。推广社会组织新入职人员教育培训,重点提高适应社会组织工作的能力。开展社会组织负责人任职培训,重点提高胜任领导工作的能力。实施社会组织秘书长培训工程,新任秘书长任职1年内原则上要参加教育培训。加强社会组织法定代表人教育培训。强化社会组织从业人员专门业务培训,重点提高业务工作能力。推动社会组织从业人员继续教育,借助国家专业技术人才知识更新工程,打造社会组织领军人才队伍。鼓励有条件的院校开设社会组织相关课程,探索建立不同学历层次的社会组织专业教育。

拓展教育培训资源。以民政职业院校为依托,发挥高等院校、科研院所以及社会力量的优势,促进资源整合,开展教育培训基地建设。争取相关部门的支持,协调党校(行政学院)开展社会组织教育培训工作。通过购买服务等方式,引导社会力量承接教育培训工作。探索开展教学质量评估。

做好教育培训资金保障。将社会组织教育培训经费纳入社会组织管理工作经费,有条件的地方也可以将社会组织教育培训纳入政府购买服务目录。倡导社会力量对教育培训工作予以捐助,鼓励举办公益性教育培训。规范资金管理,厉行节约、勤俭办学,提高资金使用效益。

七、切实做好教育培训工作的组织领导

建立协调机制。各级民政部门要重视和加强社会组织教育培训工作,建立“统一管理、分工负责、协同配合、注重实效”的教育培训工作协调机制,及时解决教育培训工作中的困难和问题。

分级组织实施。民政部负责制定社会组织教育培训规划,编写基础性、示范性培训教材,建立国家级教育培训师资库和教育培训基地,主要负责部本级社会组织教育培训工作。地方民政部门要结合实际,重点加强本级社会组织的教育培训工作。

加大宣传力度。认真总结和推广教育培训工作中的典型经验和成功做法,不断提高教育培训工作的针对性和实效性。加强对社会组织教育培训的理论研究,积极探索社会组织教育培训规律。

民政部

2015年11月3日